Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the body to turn food into energy. People with T1D must take insulin to survive because they do not make enough of it.

There are several different types of insulin used today, with most individuals with T1D using basal (long-acting) and bolus (short-acting) insulins. 

Adjunctive therapies

Adjunctive drugs are treatments that complement insulin to achieve glucose control.


Pramlintide is a synthetic amylin analog administered via syringe. It is approved for people with T1D who use mealtime insulin and do not achieve their glycemic targets despite optimal insulin therapy. Pramlintide limits glucose fluctuations after meals. Pramlintide therapy can also lead to weight loss and improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, in its current form, it causes additional dosing burdens on users.  

Blood pressure and cholesterol medications

In T1D, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and poor glycemic control impact cardiovascular outcomes, including blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Long disease duration and increased risk of microvascular complications in T1D also contribute to the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in T1D. Therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), statins, and other lipid-lowering drugs may be prescribed to manage cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications.  

Disease-modifying therapy


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tzield™ (teplizumab-mzwv) in November 2022, making it the first approved disease-modifying therapy for delaying T1D onset in people at risk of developing the disease. Studies have shown Tzield can delay the onset of T1D for approximately 2 years. 

Daily T1D management

Managing type 1 diabetes involves three main steps: checking blood sugar, administering insulin, and counting carbohydrates.

Monitoring blood sugar, or blood glucose, is a vital part of life with T1D, and can be done via glucometer or continuous glucose monitor (CGM).

There are four primary methods for administering insulin: injections with syringe or pen, inhaler, insulin pump, or artificial pancreas system/automated insulin delivery system.

People with T1D must balance the amount of carbs they consume with the right dose of insulin.

Learn more T1D basics

The science behind T1D

Onset triggers associated with T1D

Tests and other factors that lead to a T1D diagnosis